现在完成时练习题及答案(现在完成时题型解析)

 

中考英语语法丨现在完成时详解(附练习题及答案)!
 

  现在完成时的含义:

现在完成时表示过去发生 的动作对现在造成的影响或从过去一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

 

中考英语语法丨现在完成时详解(附练习题及答案)!
 

  一.现在完成时的构成:

"have/ has+动词的过去分词”。

①肯定句主语+have/ has+动词的过去分词 。

Though he has read the book three times, he hopes to read it again.

尽管已经把这本书读了三遍,他仍希望再读一次。

②否定句:主语+have/ has+not+动词的过去分词。

You haven't been here for a long time.

你已经很长时间没来这儿了。

③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词?

Have they finished the work yet?

他们已经完成这项工作了吗?

  二.现在完成时的用法:

(1)表示发生在过去的动作对现在仍有影响

My father has gone to Shanghai. (表示人不在这里了)我爸爸去上海了。

I have already had supper. (表示现在不饿了)我已经吃过晚饭了。

(2 )表示从过去开始一直延续到现在(可能延续下去)的动作或状态

He has lived here since 1970.

他自从1970年以来一直住 在这里。

My brother has been a soldier for two years.我哥哥已经参军两年了。

提示:常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有alredy(已经),yet (还),just (刚刚), never(从不),ever(曾经),before (以前), recently(近来), since then(从那时起),since(自从),so far (到目前为止),for a long time(很长一段时间), in the past/last few years (在过/最近的几年里)等。

(3 )have/has gone to和have/has been to的区别:

①have/has gone to去了某地,不能与once, twice, three times等连用

②have/has been to去过某地,可以与once, twice,three times等连用

一Hello, may I speak to Tom?

你好,我可以和汤姆通话吗?

一Oh, sorry! He has gone to London

噢,抱歉!他去伦敦了。

Helen has been to Hong Kong.

海伦去过香港 (以前去过香港,已从香港回来) 。

I have been to Bijing twice. ( have been to可与次数连用)我去过北京两次。

  练一练:

l( )scared of dogs ever since a dog hurt me when I was five years old.

A. will be

B. was

C. have been

D. would be

[解析]ever snce...意为“...以.”常用于现在完成时。现在完成时的构成为havehast动调的过去分词,故选C。

[答案]C

  三. 现在完成时中短暂性动词怎样和表示一段时间的状语连用。

短暂性动词又叫终止性动词、瞬间动词或非延续性动词,只表示一时的动作,在肯定句式中不能与表示延续的时间状语连用。这类动词常用的有go,come ,leave,find, buy, rrive,give,stop ,join, marry,die,pass away等。同学们如果对现在完成时理解不透彻,在使用时就会出现不少的错误。例如:“这本书我买了三个月了。”误译成“I have bought this book for three months.”。为了避免这类错误,我们在使用这类词时一定要学会并掌握以下“三个变化”。

1、谓语动词的变化: 把短暂性动词变为延续性动词。例如:

leave →have( has) been away from

join→have( has) been( in)

buy→have( has) had

die→have( has) been dead

come( arrive)→have( has ) been here

borrow→have( has ) kept

begin to work→have(has) worked( studied)

open→have( has ) been open

get up→have( has )been up

put on→have( has )on

come back→have( has ) been back

marry →have( has) been married等。

例如:

①他来这里半小时了。

[误] He has come here for half an hour.

[正] He has been here for half an hour.

②他犹豫不决、沉默了一会儿。

[误] He hesitated and gave no reply for a while.

[正] He heitated and remained silent for a while.

2、时间状语的变化把表时 间的状语“for...”变为“数词+时间名词ago"的短语形式。如:

他参军八年了。

[误]He has joined the Army for eight years.

[正]He has been in the Army for eight years.

[正] He joined the Army five years ago.

他离开济南五年了。

[ 误] He has left Jinan for five years.

[正] He has been away from Jinan for five years.

[ 正] He left Jinan five years ago.

3、句子模式的变化:可 把句式变为"It is +时间+ since...”的句式。例如:

我爷爷已去世十多年了。

[误] My grandpa has died for more than ten years.

[正]My grandpa has been dead for more than ten years.

[ 正] My grandpa died more than ten years ago.

[ 正]It is more than ten years since our my grandpa died.

中华人民共和国成立多久了?七十一年了。

[误] How long was the People's Republic of China founded? It was founded for 71 years.

[正]How long is it since the People's Republic of China was founded? It is seventy-one years since it was founded.

练一练:将下列句子译为英语。

1.我兄弟入团两年了。

①_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

②_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

③_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

④_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2. 我父亲去世已三年了。

①_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

②_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

③_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

答案:

1. ①My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.

② My brother has been a League member for two years.

③My brother joined the Youth League two years ago.

④ It is two years since my brother joined the Youth League.

2. ①My father has been dead for three years.

②My father died three years ago.

③It is three years since my father died.

  四.怎样检验终止性动词?

英语中有些动词表示的行为是不能延续的,被称为终止性动词,也叫瞬间动词或非延续性动词。这类动词不能用于”现在完成时+for引导的“时间状语“这一结构中充任非否定谓语。例如:

那老人死了五个月了。

[误]The old man has died for five months.

[正]The old man has been dead for five months.

因为die是终止性动词,一个人从活着到死亡的变化是转瞬之间就完成的,不具有延续性,哪能延续五个月呢? 所以我们要把die 改为延续性动词be,表示存在的状态。如果要用die来表达,我们就得改变时态和句型,比如我们可以将上例说成:

The old man died five months ago.或者:

It's five months since the old man died.

一个动词是不是属于终止性的,同学们往往确定不下来,而词典上一般又没有注明。那么,我们该怎样检验它呢?这里给大家介绍一个方法。

把需要检验的动词放到“现在完成时+ since引导的‘时间状语’”这一句型中充当肯定谓语。如果意思讲得通,就是延续性动词;讲不通,就是终止性动词。现在我们就把wear和put on拿来试试:

She has worn the green skirt since the day before yesterday.

(从前天到现在她一直穿 着那件绿裙子。)讲得通,wear是延续性动词。She has put on the green skirt since the day before yesterday.

(从前天到现在她一直穿上那件绿裙子。)讲不通,put on是终止性动词。

  练一练:

请试用上述方法判断下列句子的正误。

()1. He has left Hangzhou for over twenty years.

()2. He has lived in Shanghai for ten years.

()3. How long have you come here?

()4. How many years have you studied English?

()5. Has she bought the dictionary for about a year?

()6. Has she used this dictionary for about a year?

()7. I have lost my watch for a week.

()8. How long may I keep your watch?

()9. I've got to know John for three years.

()10. I've known John for three years.

()11. Has your brother become a doctor for five years?

()12. Has your sister worked as a nurse for two years?

答案:1.X2. V3. X4. V5. X6. V7. X8. V9. X

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