英语论文格式模板语句(分析英文学术论文写作表达摘抄)

第一章 概论

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第二章 英语科技论文的文体特点

2.1 词汇特点

英语科技论文的特点之一就是大量使用科技词汇,主要包括以下几类:

  • 纯科技词汇。如diode(二极管)、database(数据库)等。
  • 通用科技词汇。如power在机械力学中词义为“力”、“电”、“电力”、“动力”、“电源”、“功率”的等,在数学中为“乘方”、“次方”、“幂”。feed一词有“馈电”、“供水”、“输送”、“进刀”等意。
  • 普通词汇专业化
  • 合成词。如software(软件)、hoursepower(马力)等。
  • 混成词。如comsat(通信卫星)、hi-tech(高新技术)等。
  • 派生词。如前缀hydro-,hyper-,hypo-,inter-等。
  • 缩略词。如IC(integrated circuit)集成电路、AI(artificial intelligence)人工智能
  • 语体正式词。动词短语宜用与之对应的、意义明确的单个词的动词。如:
一般语体 正式语体 一般语体 正式语体
use up exhaust 耗尽 push into insert 插入,嵌入
throw back reflecct 反映,反射 put in add 加,增加
carry out perform 执行,完成 think about consider 考虑
get rid of eliminate 消除,排除 take away remove 移动,迁移,调动
get together concentrate 集中,浓缩 fill up occupy 占据,占领
keep up maintain 维持,继续 hang up suspend 延缓,推迟
一般语体 正式语体 一般语体 正式语体
finish complete 完成 underwater submarine 水下的
buy purchase 购买 enough sufficient 足够的
similar identical 同一的,完全相同的 handbook manual 手册,指南
careful cautious 谨慎的,小心的 help assist 帮助,促进
try attempt 企图,试图 get obtain 获得
about approximately 大约,近似地 use utilize 利用

2.2 句法特点

  • 较多使用被动语态
  • 较多使用非谓语动词(分词、动名词、动词不定式及其复合结构)。例如:Compared with DoD's plan, the options would yield greater improvemnets in reception and would yield improvements sooner.A theoretical framework is provided, consisting of negative reinforcing feedback loops that act as drivers behind future industry change.
  • 大量使用名词化结构(主要是用具有动词意义的名词+of+修饰词)
  • 非人称句使用频繁(第三人称作主语的句子)

第三章 英语科技论文的语言表达技巧和常见错误

3.1 如何提高语言的准确性

  • 选用具体的表达,避免抽象的表达。例如:a1:Our experimenntal data are not precise because the devices are in poor condition.(含糊)a2:Our experimenntal data are not precise because the devices are not working properly.(具体)b1:The results seem to be satisfactory.(含糊)b2:We are satisfied with the result that . (具体)

下列几个词语的相对意义不够确切,尽量少用:in the case of, generally, somewhat, unduly, several, fairly, rather, overall, certain, as such, anticipate, presently等

  • 选用较为正式的动词
  • 区别易混淆词、同义词和近义词。例如:The first result was obtained after approximately four minutes.句中的approximately与about, around, roughly都表示“大约大概”的意思,但approximately比其他词更准确。近义词举例:'consist of'用主动语态,而compose的用法是“整体+be composed of+组成部分”:a1:This process consists of the translation, reconstruction, and interpretation of three basic elements of the application.a2:Java applications are composed of one or more class files, one file per class.
  • 避免使用引起歧义的词语

3.2 如何提高语言的简洁性

3.2.1 使用短语代替从句

1、 名词短语代替从句。名词短语可以替代状语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句、同位语从句。

  • If the temperature of engines decreases dramatically, the fuel consumption of automobiles will increase.(条件状语从句可以简化为:A dramatic decrease in the tenperature of engines will result in an increase in the fuel consumption of automobiles.)
  • Note that the result is accurate. (宾语从句可以简化为:Note the accuracy of the result.)
  • One of the advantages of the machines is that they are small in size. (表语从句可以简化为:One of the advantages of the machine is their small size.)
  • To resolve the problem that malicious software load more and more harm to computer system, SRN mechanism is put forward. (同位语从句及其先行词可以简化为:To resolve the increasing harm of malicious software on computer system, SRN machanism is put forward.)
  • The value is the highest in the experiment. (可以简化为:The experiment has the highest value.)
  • Check Mate is a program analysis framework for Java. It uses Jchord to instrument lock acquires and releases. (两句话可以合并为:Check Mate, a program analysis framework for Java, uses Jchord to instrument lock acquires and releases.)

2、 形容词短语代替从句。形容词短语不仅可以充当定语,有时还可以替代从句表示原因、状态或补充说明。

  • The satellites which are capable of transmitting M-code signals were already in orbit as of August 2011. (定语从句可以简化为:Ten satellites capable of transmitting M-code signals were already in orbit as of August 2011.)

3、 副词短语替代从句

  • As far as the theory and computation are concerned, material anisotropy and layering pose great challenges. (状语从句可以简化为:Material anisotropy and layering pose great challenges both theoretically and computationally.)

4、 介词短语代替从句

  • It's a simple and scalable protocol, which performs well for average-case loads and operating conditions. (非限制性定语从句可简化为:with good performance for average-case loads and operating conditions)
  • The communication interface should be rather simple to implement. It dosen't need specialized communication controllers. (第二句可简化为:without specialized communication controllers)

5、 分词短语代替从句。现在分词表示主动含义,过去分词表示被动含义。

  • This paper gives an overview of GRASP, and also describes its basic components and enhancements to the basic procedure. (并列动词可简化为:describing its basic components and enhancements to the basic procedure)
  • From the class of protocols that is triggered by event, the controller area network bus is used in many automotive applications. (定语从句可简化为:From the eventtriggered class of protocols,...)

6、 动名词短语替代从句。动名词短语可以替代主语从句、宾语从句,作介词宾语可以替代状语从句,有时也可以把并列句简化为简单句。

  • You can transmit F three times clearly, but it doesn't do the trick. (并列句可简化为:Transmitting F three times clearly doesn't do the trick.)

7、 不定式短语替代从句,不定式短语经常用来替代目的状语。

3.2.2 变后置定语为前置定语

  • There was a choice that can not be avoided between privacy and user-desired functionality. (后置定语可简化为:There was an unavoidable choice between privacy and user-desired functionality.)

3.2.3 使用省略手段

1、 省略谓语

  • Scheme 1 got the highest average while Scheme 2 got the lowest. (Scheme 1 got the highest average while Scheme 2 the lowest.)

2、 省略从句中部分成分

  • When used without a recovery service, Carburizer identifies bugs for a programmer to fix. (省略了it is)
  • When confronted with real devices that misbehave, these assumptions can lead to driver or system failures. (省略了thay are)

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